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Impact of Arabic Language Proficiency (ALP) on Expatriate Adjustment and Job Performance in Saudi Arabia: Role of Personal and Environmental Factors

Dr. Muhammad Awais Bhatti
Associate Professor, Department of Management, School of Business, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
Dr. Mohammad Alnehabi
Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, College of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, (IMSIU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Arabic Language Proficiency (APL), Personal Factors, Environmental Factors, Expatriate Adjustment, Saudi Arabia ,


The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between Arabic Language Proficiency (ALP) and expatriate adjustment (EA), and job performance (JP) in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the moderating role of personal and environmental factors is investigated. This investigation employs a mixed-methods research design. The intended audience is the personnel of Saudi Arabia's Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs). A survey was conducted for quantitative data, while interviews were used for qualitative data. CFA and SEM were used for quantitative data analysis, while thematic analysis was used for qualitative data analysis. The results of this study indicate that Arabic language proficiency significantly affects job performance and expatriate adaptation. It was also discovered that several personal and environmental factors contribute to the impact, including language barriers, the workplace environment, training, and support. This study is novel because it examines the effects of ALP on EA and JP in Saudi Arabia, in addition to personal and environmental factors; no prior study of this nature has been conducted in Saudi Arabia. The study is limited to Higher Education Institutions (HEIs); thus, its generalizability is restricted. The study is significant for Saudi Arabia's Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) because it emphasizes the significance of training and support, which would aid in adapting foreign employees, and enhancing their job performance.