EURASIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS

Uncategorized

The Uses and Functions of Barack Obama’s Hedging Language in Selected Speeches

Mashael ALMUTAIRI

Nouf AL KOUS
English Language Institute, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Mimouna ZITOUNI
Department of Translation, College of Languages, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Barack Obama’s speeches, hedging language, discourse analysis, Salager-Meyer’s taxonomy

Abstract

President Barack Obama’s use of the hedging language is an evidence of his unique mastery of rhetorical strategies, power of persuasion and an influential speaker. The purpose of this study was to identify and retrieve the hedging devices contained in President Obama’s speeches. For this purpose, his most important and decisive speeches were selected including two inaugural addresses, an annual message to Congress on the state of the Union and Presidential Nomination Acceptance Speech.  These speeches were processed through Salager-Mayer’s taxonomy of hedges, which facilitated the classification of their respective categories, frequencies and pragmatic functions of hedging language. The data analysis process involved a mixed method of research design, first to count the number of the hedge words, calculate their occurrence rates; and then discuss them qualitatively to identify the reasons why specific hedges, and not others, were used. The processing of the data showed that the modal auxiliary verb ‘can’, a catchword in Obama’s campaign slogan “Yes, we can”, was the most often used hedging device. This finding points to a lack of variety and complexity in political language as far as hedging devices are concerned. However, the overall number of hedging devices found in Obama's speeches is a high figure. This elicits the importance of hedging in political discourse, and proves that Obama was very mindful of his language each time he addressed the nation. His rhetorical skills found in hedging outlets of expression to fulfill some purposes but at varying degrees: possibility and persuasion, on the one hand, and fuzziness and vagueness.  However, given the limited number of the speeches processed in this research, the result needs to be confirmed by the analysis of the wider corpus of Obama’s pre- and post-election speeches.

The Uses and Functions of Barack Obama’s Hedging Language in Selected Speeches

Mashael ALMUTAIRI

Nouf AL KOUS
English Language Institute, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Mimouna ZITOUNI
Department of Translation, College of Languages, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Barack Obama’s speeches, hedging language, discourse analysis, Salager-Meyer’s taxonomy

Abstract

President Barack Obama’s use of the hedging language is an evidence of his unique mastery of rhetorical strategies, power of persuasion and an influential speaker. The purpose of this study was to identify and retrieve the hedging devices contained in President Obama’s speeches. For this purpose, his most important and decisive speeches were selected including two inaugural addresses, an annual message to Congress on the state of the Union and Presidential Nomination Acceptance Speech.  These speeches were processed through Salager-Mayer’s taxonomy of hedges, which facilitated the classification of their respective categories, frequencies and pragmatic functions of hedging language. The data analysis process involved a mixed method of research design, first to count the number of the hedge words, calculate their occurrence rates; and then discuss them qualitatively to identify the reasons why specific hedges, and not others, were used. The processing of the data showed that the modal auxiliary verb ‘can’, a catchword in Obama’s campaign slogan “Yes, we can”, was the most often used hedging device. This finding points to a lack of variety and complexity in political language as far as hedging devices are concerned. However, the overall number of hedging devices found in Obama's speeches is a high figure. This elicits the importance of hedging in political discourse, and proves that Obama was very mindful of his language each time he addressed the nation. His rhetorical skills found in hedging outlets of expression to fulfill some purposes but at varying degrees: possibility and persuasion, on the one hand, and fuzziness and vagueness.  However, given the limited number of the speeches processed in this research, the result needs to be confirmed by the analysis of the wider corpus of Obama’s pre- and post-election speeches.

The Relationship between the Morphological Phenomena of the Current Sakakan Dialect and the Modern Standard Arabic

Atalah Mohammad Al-Rubaat
Jouf University, College of Arts, Department of English, Jouf, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Sakaka dialect, SA; morphological features; masculine regular plural; dual; feminine plural; irregular plural.

Abstract

The Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and many of its dialects have been investigated, described, and analyzed morphologically by intensive previous research. However, the dialect of Sakakan tribes in the north region of the Arab peninsula has not received any adequate attention in this regard.  Therefore, this research aims at describing, analyzing and documenting some current morphological phenomena in the Sakakan dialect (SD) that is spoken in Al-Jouf region, KSA. This research also aims at finding out the relationship between four morphological phenomena of SD namely: the masculine regular plural, the dual, the feminine plural, and the irregular plural and their corresponding examples in MSA or any other neighboring Semitic languages. In order to achieve these objectives, the related literature was reviewed before implementing a semi-structured interview and an observation scale. The research employed a nonprobability sampling procedure (convenience sampling) to select (30) Sakakan participants from various ethnographic and demographic backgrounds (age, gender, and education level variables). By using a mixed-analytical method based on quantitative and qualitative approaches, the investigated SD morphological phenomena when described and documented showed a strong relationship with MSA.  One implication of this research is the need for further investigation and identification of the morphology of current Arabic dialects.

Contrastive Analysis of Cross-Linguistic Interference of Trilingual Oil Workers

Kulpash Koptleuova
Department of English and German Languages, K. Zhubanov Aktobe Regional University, Aktobe, Kazakhstan
Akhmaral Khairzhanova
Department of Translation Studies and Foreign Languages, “Kh. Dosmukhamedov Atyrau University”, Atyrau, Kazakhstan
Uzim Jumagaliyeva
Department of Russian Philology, “Kh. Dosmukhamedov Atyrau University”, Atyrau, Kazakhstan
Gulnazen Baiseuova
Department of Translation Studies and Foreign Languages, “Kh. Dosmukhamedov Atyrau University”, Atyrau, Kazakhstan
Anar Kurmangalieva
Department of Translation Studies and Foreign Languages, “Kh. Dosmukhamedov Atyrau University”, Atyrau, Kazakhstan
Keywords: contrastive linguistics, interference, Kazakh-Russian-English trilingualism, L1-L2, language contacts, polylingualism.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to identify, describe and classify errors in the Russian and English speech of the native Kazakh speakers working in the oil industry as well as to give a possible explanation of the reasons for their occurrence. The cross-linguistic interference characteristics of the Kazakhs’ speech were investigated with the involvement of 30 Kazakh oil workers. Based on the contrastive linguistic analysis of the Kazakh, Russian and English languages, typical errors in the oil workers’ speech were established. After gathering the data, the numbers and percentages were employed. The data was then grouped and categorized as per the problems of the study, the characteristics of the items, and the objectives before analyzing it on the basis of frequency of responses. The study has shown that in the speech of oil workers, there were interferences like under-differentiation, over-differentiation, reinterpretation, substitution. These interferences in the speech of trilingual (represented phonetically, lexically, and grammatically) were more complex than in bilingualism. Kazakhs’ Russian speech was also found as close as possible to the norms of the Russian language, and with trilingualism. There was a two-component unidirectional influence seen on the acquisition of a third language (English). The practical significance of the research lies in the possibility of applying these results in order to draw up a methodological and practical basis for teaching English, taking into account the peculiarities of the differences in language systems.

Kazakh and Russian Kinship Terminology: A Comparative Linguistic and Cultural Analysis of Lacunae

Tanzilya Vakhitova
Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Baishev University, Aktobe, Kazakhstan
Gulzhana Kuzembayeva
Department of the English and German Languages, K. Zhubanov Aktobe Regional University, Aktobe, Kazakhstan
Aliya Yergazina
Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Baishev University, Aktobe, Kazakhstan
Anargul Zhumakhanova
Department of the English and German Languages, K. Zhubanov Aktobe Regional University, Aktobe, Kazakhstan
Raysa Khayrullina
Department of Russian Language, Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M. Akmullah, Ufa, Russian Federation
Keywords: Kinship; Lacunae; Linguistic, semantic, lexical; The Kazakh and Russian languages.

Abstract

A cross-cultural investigation of lacunae contributes to successful intercultural communication, helping in achieving mutual understanding between cultures and solving communication problems between different nations. This study is aimed at identifying and classifying lexical lacunae in the kinship terminologies of the Russian and Kazakh languages. The comparative study reveals semantic, cultural, psychological, evaluative, and aesthetic factors. The material of the study comprises the terms of kinship, selected by the method of continuous sampling from lexicographic sources of the Kazakh and Russian languages, with a total volume of 300 units. Interlanguage lacunae were described from the perspective of comparative structural-semantic analysis. The analysis of kinship terms in the Russian and Kazakh languages showed that there are more similarities than previously thought. Significant differences in Russian and Kazakh kinship terminology were manifested in connection with the allocation of the seme “gender correlation”, i.e., the name depends on the gender of the person concerning whom it was used, as well as the seme “age concerning the speaking person”. Analysis of Kazakh kinship terms that act as lacunae in the Russian language and their classification in terms of semantics, structure, etymology and cultural components was not considered an object of research until now.

Interpersonal Meta function Analysis of Editorial Discourse in Business-Related Issues Using English Systemic Linguistics

Aldi Alexander Vinchristo
Doctoral Program of Applied English Linguistics, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Jl. Jend. Sudirman No.51, Jakarta 12930, Indonesia
Keywords: Interpersonal Meta function, Mood, Modality, Attitude as part of Appraisal theory.

Abstract

This study examines Mood, Modality, and Attitude as a part of Appraisal theory in the Editorial News of the Sydney Morning Herald Interpersonal Meta function Analysis. Three methods were used, including (1) Indicative (Declarative and Interrogative) mood, (2) Modalization (Indicative Type), Probability (may be) and Usuality (“sometimes”), and (3) Attitude subsystem as part of Appraisal theory resources with three clauses, including Affect, Judgment, and Appreciation. The study aims to investigate the highest Interpersonal Meta function in terms of Mood, Modality, and Attitude in Editorial Discourse in Business-Related Issues. A sample of ten editorial discourses in business-related issues from The Sydney Morning Herald was used to examine Mood, Modality, and Attitude as part of Appraisal theory. The adopted framework in this research is interpersonal Meta function consisting of Mood, Modality, and Attitude as part of Appraisal theory. The results showed that more interrogative clauses were used, specifically 108 of 183 (59.02%) than declarative 75 of 183 (40.98%). Additionally, there were more probability positive clauses 61 of 73 (83.56%) than negative 7 of 73 (9.59%) and usuality 5 of 73 (6.85%). Similarly, appreciation clauses were used more frequently, specifically 19 of 46 (41.30%) than Judgment 14 of 46 (30.43%) and Affect 13 of 46 (28.26%). The limitation for this research is that it examined only 10 business-related editorials, which means it may not be too comprehensive. However, the information in this research can be used for educational development in Interpersonal Meta function Analysis of Editorial Discourse in Business-Related Issues Using English Systemic Linguistics. The author recommends that the future research should add more business-related editorial cases to incorporate Interpersonal Meta function, which consists of Mood, Modality, and Appraisal system as a whole by adding graduation, engagement in order to be more complete, not only Attitude as a part of Appraisal theory.

Branding in Transnational English Medium Instruction-Oriented Universities in The Arabian Gulf: Implications for Language Policy

Osman Z. Barnawi
Royal Commission for Yanbu Colleges and Institute
Keywords: branding, transnational education, universities, English medium instruction

Abstract

Conceptualizing branding as ongoing strategic efforts formulated by transnational English medium instruction EMI)-oriented universities in today’s competitive Higher Education (HE) market in order to create uniqueness for their academic programs as branded commodities, this paper (a) examines the forms of branding crafted by universities in the Arabian Gulf Cooperation Council countries (Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait and United Arab Emirates) in order to claim uniqueness for their academic programs, and (b) inquires into whose interests (i.e., students, teachers, universities, investors or governments) are thus best served. Data were collected from policy documents, promotional materials (e.g., slogans) and official speeches on recent major branding initiatives undertaken by universities across the region. These data were treated as a research site which has its own history, players and nuances. The findings reveal that because of the different branding efforts intertwined with neoliberal language policy agendas undertaken by universities, with generous logistic, legal, and financial supports from their governments, a collision of conflicting interests and objectives among different players has arisen. This undesirable out­come leads governments and universities to represent and imagine each other as rivals instead of as collaborators aiming to secure various regional interests, including joint educational work. The implication of this phenomenon is that transnational English medium instruction-oriented policies have brought about apparent educational inequalities and social class in HE sectors of the region. This paper closes with recommendations to align the branding efforts with the regional interests stipulated in the Arab Bureau of Education for the Arabian Gulf countries.

Branding in Transnational English Medium Instruction-Oriented Universities in The Arabian Gulf: Implications for Language Policy

Osman Z. Barnawi
Royal Commission for Yanbu Colleges and Institute
Keywords: branding, transnational education, universities, English medium instruction

Abstract

Conceptualizing branding as ongoing strategic efforts formulated by transnational English medium instruction EMI)-oriented universities in today’s competitive Higher Education (HE) market in order to create uniqueness for their academic programs as branded commodities, this paper (a) examines the forms of branding crafted by universities in the Arabian Gulf Cooperation Council countries (Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait and United Arab Emirates) in order to claim uniqueness for their academic programs, and (b) inquires into whose interests (i.e., students, teachers, universities, investors or governments) are thus best served. Data were collected from policy documents, promotional materials (e.g., slogans) and official speeches on recent major branding initiatives undertaken by universities across the region. These data were treated as a research site which has its own history, players and nuances. The findings reveal that because of the different branding efforts intertwined with neoliberal language policy agendas undertaken by universities, with generous logistic, legal, and financial supports from their governments, a collision of conflicting interests and objectives among different players has arisen. This undesirable out­come leads governments and universities to represent and imagine each other as rivals instead of as collaborators aiming to secure various regional interests, including joint educational work. The implication of this phenomenon is that transnational English medium instruction-oriented policies have brought about apparent educational inequalities and social class in HE sectors of the region. This paper closes with recommendations to align the branding efforts with the regional interests stipulated in the Arab Bureau of Education for the Arabian Gulf countries.

The Uses and Functions of Barack Obama’s Hedging Language in Selected Speeches

Mashael ALMUTAIRI

Nouf AL KOUS
English Language Institute, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Mimouna ZITOUNI
Department of Translation, College of Languages, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Barack Obama’s speeches, hedging language, discourse analysis, Salager-Meyer’s taxonomy

Abstract

President Barack Obama’s use of the hedging language is an evidence of his unique mastery of rhetorical strategies, power of persuasion and an influential speaker. The purpose of this study was to identify and retrieve the hedging devices contained in President Obama’s speeches. For this purpose, his most important and decisive speeches were selected including two inaugural addresses, an annual message to Congress on the state of the Union and Presidential Nomination Acceptance Speech.  These speeches were processed through Salager-Mayer’s taxonomy of hedges, which facilitated the classification of their respective categories, frequencies and pragmatic functions of hedging language. The data analysis process involved a mixed method of research design, first to count the number of the hedge words, calculate their occurrence rates; and then discuss them qualitatively to identify the reasons why specific hedges, and not others, were used. The processing of the data showed that the modal auxiliary verb ‘can’, a catchword in Obama’s campaign slogan “Yes, we can”, was the most often used hedging device. This finding points to a lack of variety and complexity in political language as far as hedging devices are concerned. However, the overall number of hedging devices found in Obama's speeches is a high figure. This elicits the importance of hedging in political discourse, and proves that Obama was very mindful of his language each time he addressed the nation. His rhetorical skills found in hedging outlets of expression to fulfill some purposes but at varying degrees: possibility and persuasion, on the one hand, and fuzziness and vagueness.  However, given the limited number of the speeches processed in this research, the result needs to be confirmed by the analysis of the wider corpus of Obama’s pre- and post-election speeches.

The Uses and Functions of Barack Obama’s Hedging Language in Selected Speeches

Mashael ALMUTAIRI

Nouf AL KOUS
English Language Institute, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Mimouna ZITOUNI
Department of Translation, College of Languages, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Barack Obama’s speeches, hedging language, discourse analysis, Salager-Meyer’s taxonomy

Abstract

President Barack Obama’s use of the hedging language is an evidence of his unique mastery of rhetorical strategies, power of persuasion and an influential speaker. The purpose of this study was to identify and retrieve the hedging devices contained in President Obama’s speeches. For this purpose, his most important and decisive speeches were selected including two inaugural addresses, an annual message to Congress on the state of the Union and Presidential Nomination Acceptance Speech.  These speeches were processed through Salager-Mayer’s taxonomy of hedges, which facilitated the classification of their respective categories, frequencies and pragmatic functions of hedging language. The data analysis process involved a mixed method of research design, first to count the number of the hedge words, calculate their occurrence rates; and then discuss them qualitatively to identify the reasons why specific hedges, and not others, were used. The processing of the data showed that the modal auxiliary verb ‘can’, a catchword in Obama’s campaign slogan “Yes, we can”, was the most often used hedging device. This finding points to a lack of variety and complexity in political language as far as hedging devices are concerned. However, the overall number of hedging devices found in Obama's speeches is a high figure. This elicits the importance of hedging in political discourse, and proves that Obama was very mindful of his language each time he addressed the nation. His rhetorical skills found in hedging outlets of expression to fulfill some purposes but at varying degrees: possibility and persuasion, on the one hand, and fuzziness and vagueness.  However, given the limited number of the speeches processed in this research, the result needs to be confirmed by the analysis of the wider corpus of Obama’s pre- and post-election speeches.