EURASIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS

Uncategorized

Benefits of Arabic Vocabulary for Teaching Malay to Persian-speaking University Students

Kazuhito Uni
Malaysia France Institute University of Kuala Lumpur
Keywords: Arabic, etymology, Malay, Persian, semantic similarity

Abstract

Arabic is one of the largest donor languages to Malay and Persian. This study explores the benefits of Arabic vocabulary in teaching Malay words of Arabic origin to Persian-speaking students using a vocabulary survey containing 40 Malay words of Arabic origin, most of which retain phonetic or semantic similarity in Persian. Participants were 20 native Persian-speaking students at a Malaysian university. Page 1 of the questionnaire demonstrated a list of 40 Malay words of Arabic origin and yes/no columns in order to verify participants’ prior knowledge. Page 2 demonstrated 40 Malay words followed by their etymologies, including multiple-choice questions in which participants selected the most appropriate meaning. Participants averaged 19.9 correct answers and 17.35 newly learned words. At a 5% level, a significant difference was observed in their scores before and after the explicit demonstration of the word origins (p = .000, t = 20.28). This study concludes that the proposed method to explicitly present Malay words of Arabic origin and their etymologies assist Persian-speaking students in learning basic Malay vocabulary.

A Critical Analysis of the Language Planning and Policy (LPP) in Pakistan and its Impact on Indigenous Languages of Pakistan

Furrakh Abbas
School of Languages, Civilisation and Philosophy (SLCP), Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia & Department of Linguistics, University of Okara, Pakistan
Siti Jamilah Bidin
School of Languages, Civilisation and Philosophy (SLCP), Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia
Keywords: language planning and policy (LPP), indigenous languages, Pakistan, ethno linguistics

Abstract

A well-devised formulation of language planning and policy creates a sense of ownership among speakers of all languages. At the same time, its absence may lead to asymmetrical power relations among speakers of different languages. This article aims at presenting a critical analysis of language planning and policy (LPP) in Pakistan and its impact on the indigenous languages of Pakistan. The research draws on secondary sources of data such as the policy documents, the research articles written on language planning and policy in Pakistan and the views of the language critics. The data shows that the language policies devised at various times in Pakistan have failed to prove fruitful as the multilingual language profile of the country was not taken into deep consideration. Critics argue that the policy practices at the national level patronized the use of Urdu and English at the cost of indigenous languages. Language planning and policy (LPP) reflects an ambivalent attitude as some provinces paid attention to it as a sensitive matter; others ignored it altogether. Overall, language planning and policy (LPP) shows traces of colonial imprints. The promotion of the English language resulted in its emergence as a power and status symbol, while that of Urdu resulted in ethnolinguistic resistance. Therefore, there is a dire need to build solidarity with all the languages, acknowledge them, and provide them equal growth opportunities through effective LPP. The implications of the research highlight that equal growth opportunities must be provided in practice to all indigenous languages. It is recommended to overhaul language planning and policy in Pakistan. If the situation of unequal growth persists and the existing deep sense of deprivation suffered by local ethnolinguistic groups is not alleviated, it may lead to devastating consequences.

Do Gender and Regional Differences Affect Students’ Reading Literacy? A Case Study in Indonesia

Andi Sukri Syamsuri
State Islamic University of Alauddin Makassar, Gowa, 92118, Indonesia
Hartono Bancong
University of Muhammadiyah Makassar, Makassar, 90221, Indonesia
Keywords: gender; Indonesian students; reading literacy; region; text comprehension

Abstract

Reading literacy is one of the key components in the teaching and learning process. This study aims to describe the differences in reading literacy of Indonesian students by gender and region and identify what factors are most likely to trigger these differences. An explanatory sequential mixed methods design was used through two stages to collect and analyze data: quantitative and qualitative. The total participants were 240 students and 8 teachers from both urban and rural schools. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the students' reading literacy score between male and female students (t = 4.007; p = 0.000) and between students in urban and rural areas (t = 4.889; p = 0.000) at the significance level of 0.05. This study concludes that female students have good perspective on reading, have high intrinsic motivation and task-focused behavior that altogether give higher impact on their reading literacy than male students do. In addition, differences in teacher quality, school facilities and infrastructures, learning environment, and sources of supporting materials are also the main factors why students in urban schools have better reading literacy than students in rural schools. The results of this study strengthen the sociocultural views that learning and development are influenced by the social and cultural environment of students.

A Critical Analysis of the Language Planning and Policy (LPP) in Pakistan and its Impact on Indigenous Languages of Pakistan

Furrakh Abbas
School of Languages, Civilisation and Philosophy (SLCP), Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia & Department of Linguistics, University of Okara, Pakistan
Siti Jamilah Bidin
School of Languages, Civilisation and Philosophy (SLCP), Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia
Keywords: language planning and policy (LPP), indigenous languages, Pakistan, ethno linguistics

Abstract

A well-devised formulation of language planning and policy creates a sense of ownership among speakers of all languages. At the same time, its absence may lead to asymmetrical power relations among speakers of different languages. This article aims at presenting a critical analysis of language planning and policy (LPP) in Pakistan and its impact on the indigenous languages of Pakistan. The research draws on secondary sources of data such as the policy documents, the research articles written on language planning and policy in Pakistan and the views of the language critics. The data shows that the language policies devised at various times in Pakistan have failed to prove fruitful as the multilingual language profile of the country was not taken into deep consideration. Critics argue that the policy practices at the national level patronized the use of Urdu and English at the cost of indigenous languages. Language planning and policy (LPP) reflects an ambivalent attitude as some provinces paid attention to it as a sensitive matter; others ignored it altogether. Overall, language planning and policy (LPP) shows traces of colonial imprints. The promotion of the English language resulted in its emergence as a power and status symbol, while that of Urdu resulted in ethnolinguistic resistance. Therefore, there is a dire need to build solidarity with all the languages, acknowledge them, and provide them equal growth opportunities through effective LPP. The implications of the research highlight that equal growth opportunities must be provided in practice to all indigenous languages. It is recommended to overhaul language planning and policy in Pakistan. If the situation of unequal growth persists and the existing deep sense of deprivation suffered by local ethnolinguistic groups is not alleviated, it may lead to devastating consequences.

Do Gender and Regional Differences Affect Students’ Reading Literacy? A Case Study in Indonesia

Andi Sukri Syamsuri
State Islamic University of Alauddin Makassar, Gowa, 92118, Indonesia
Hartono Bancong
University of Muhammadiyah Makassar, Makassar, 90221, Indonesia
Keywords: gender; Indonesian students; reading literacy; region; text comprehension

Abstract

Reading literacy is one of the key components in the teaching and learning process. This study aims to describe the differences in reading literacy of Indonesian students by gender and region and identify what factors are most likely to trigger these differences. An explanatory sequential mixed methods design was used through two stages to collect and analyze data: quantitative and qualitative. The total participants were 240 students and 8 teachers from both urban and rural schools. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the students' reading literacy score between male and female students (t = 4.007; p = 0.000) and between students in urban and rural areas (t = 4.889; p = 0.000) at the significance level of 0.05. This study concludes that female students have good perspective on reading, have high intrinsic motivation and task-focused behavior that altogether give higher impact on their reading literacy than male students do. In addition, differences in teacher quality, school facilities and infrastructures, learning environment, and sources of supporting materials are also the main factors why students in urban schools have better reading literacy than students in rural schools. The results of this study strengthen the sociocultural views that learning and development are influenced by the social and cultural environment of students.

A Critical Analysis of the Language Planning and Policy (LPP) in Pakistan and its Impact on Indigenous Languages of Pakistan

Furrakh Abbas
School of Languages, Civilisation and Philosophy (SLCP), Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia & Department of Linguistics, University of Okara, Pakistan
Siti Jamilah Bidin
School of Languages, Civilisation and Philosophy (SLCP), Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia
Keywords: language planning and policy (LPP), indigenous languages, Pakistan, ethno linguistics

Abstract

A well-devised formulation of language planning and policy creates a sense of ownership among speakers of all languages. At the same time, its absence may lead to asymmetrical power relations among speakers of different languages. This article aims at presenting a critical analysis of language planning and policy (LPP) in Pakistan and its impact on the indigenous languages of Pakistan. The research draws on secondary sources of data such as the policy documents, the research articles written on language planning and policy in Pakistan and the views of the language critics. The data shows that the language policies devised at various times in Pakistan have failed to prove fruitful as the multilingual language profile of the country was not taken into deep consideration. Critics argue that the policy practices at the national level patronized the use of Urdu and English at the cost of indigenous languages. Language planning and policy (LPP) reflects an ambivalent attitude as some provinces paid attention to it as a sensitive matter; others ignored it altogether. Overall, language planning and policy (LPP) shows traces of colonial imprints. The promotion of the English language resulted in its emergence as a power and status symbol, while that of Urdu resulted in ethnolinguistic resistance. Therefore, there is a dire need to build solidarity with all the languages, acknowledge them, and provide them equal growth opportunities through effective LPP. The implications of the research highlight that equal growth opportunities must be provided in practice to all indigenous languages. It is recommended to overhaul language planning and policy in Pakistan. If the situation of unequal growth persists and the existing deep sense of deprivation suffered by local ethnolinguistic groups is not alleviated, it may lead to devastating consequences.

Do Gender and Regional Differences Affect Students’ Reading Literacy? A Case Study in Indonesia

Andi Sukri Syamsuri
State Islamic University of Alauddin Makassar, Gowa, 92118, Indonesia
Hartono Bancong
University of Muhammadiyah Makassar, Makassar, 90221, Indonesia
Keywords: gender; Indonesian students; reading literacy; region; text comprehension

Abstract

Reading literacy is one of the key components in the teaching and learning process. This study aims to describe the differences in reading literacy of Indonesian students by gender and region and identify what factors are most likely to trigger these differences. An explanatory sequential mixed methods design was used through two stages to collect and analyze data: quantitative and qualitative. The total participants were 240 students and 8 teachers from both urban and rural schools. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the students' reading literacy score between male and female students (t = 4.007; p = 0.000) and between students in urban and rural areas (t = 4.889; p = 0.000) at the significance level of 0.05. This study concludes that female students have good perspective on reading, have high intrinsic motivation and task-focused behavior that altogether give higher impact on their reading literacy than male students do. In addition, differences in teacher quality, school facilities and infrastructures, learning environment, and sources of supporting materials are also the main factors why students in urban schools have better reading literacy than students in rural schools. The results of this study strengthen the sociocultural views that learning and development are influenced by the social and cultural environment of students.

The Uses and Functions of Barack Obama’s Hedging Language in Selected Speeches

Mashael ALMUTAIRI

Nouf AL KOUS
English Language Institute, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Mimouna ZITOUNI
Department of Translation, College of Languages, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Barack Obama’s speeches, hedging language, discourse analysis, Salager-Meyer’s taxonomy

Abstract

President Barack Obama’s use of the hedging language is an evidence of his unique mastery of rhetorical strategies, power of persuasion and an influential speaker. The purpose of this study was to identify and retrieve the hedging devices contained in President Obama’s speeches. For this purpose, his most important and decisive speeches were selected including two inaugural addresses, an annual message to Congress on the state of the Union and Presidential Nomination Acceptance Speech.  These speeches were processed through Salager-Mayer’s taxonomy of hedges, which facilitated the classification of their respective categories, frequencies and pragmatic functions of hedging language. The data analysis process involved a mixed method of research design, first to count the number of the hedge words, calculate their occurrence rates; and then discuss them qualitatively to identify the reasons why specific hedges, and not others, were used. The processing of the data showed that the modal auxiliary verb ‘can’, a catchword in Obama’s campaign slogan “Yes, we can”, was the most often used hedging device. This finding points to a lack of variety and complexity in political language as far as hedging devices are concerned. However, the overall number of hedging devices found in Obama's speeches is a high figure. This elicits the importance of hedging in political discourse, and proves that Obama was very mindful of his language each time he addressed the nation. His rhetorical skills found in hedging outlets of expression to fulfill some purposes but at varying degrees: possibility and persuasion, on the one hand, and fuzziness and vagueness.  However, given the limited number of the speeches processed in this research, the result needs to be confirmed by the analysis of the wider corpus of Obama’s pre- and post-election speeches.

The Uses and Functions of Barack Obama’s Hedging Language in Selected Speeches

Mashael ALMUTAIRI

Nouf AL KOUS
English Language Institute, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Mimouna ZITOUNI
Department of Translation, College of Languages, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Barack Obama’s speeches, hedging language, discourse analysis, Salager-Meyer’s taxonomy

Abstract

President Barack Obama’s use of the hedging language is an evidence of his unique mastery of rhetorical strategies, power of persuasion and an influential speaker. The purpose of this study was to identify and retrieve the hedging devices contained in President Obama’s speeches. For this purpose, his most important and decisive speeches were selected including two inaugural addresses, an annual message to Congress on the state of the Union and Presidential Nomination Acceptance Speech.  These speeches were processed through Salager-Mayer’s taxonomy of hedges, which facilitated the classification of their respective categories, frequencies and pragmatic functions of hedging language. The data analysis process involved a mixed method of research design, first to count the number of the hedge words, calculate their occurrence rates; and then discuss them qualitatively to identify the reasons why specific hedges, and not others, were used. The processing of the data showed that the modal auxiliary verb ‘can’, a catchword in Obama’s campaign slogan “Yes, we can”, was the most often used hedging device. This finding points to a lack of variety and complexity in political language as far as hedging devices are concerned. However, the overall number of hedging devices found in Obama's speeches is a high figure. This elicits the importance of hedging in political discourse, and proves that Obama was very mindful of his language each time he addressed the nation. His rhetorical skills found in hedging outlets of expression to fulfill some purposes but at varying degrees: possibility and persuasion, on the one hand, and fuzziness and vagueness.  However, given the limited number of the speeches processed in this research, the result needs to be confirmed by the analysis of the wider corpus of Obama’s pre- and post-election speeches.

Interpersonal Meta function Analysis of Editorial Discourse in Business-Related Issues Using English Systemic Linguistics

Aldi Alexander Vinchristo
Doctoral Program of Applied English Linguistics, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Jl. Jend. Sudirman No.51, Jakarta 12930, Indonesia
Keywords: Interpersonal Meta function, Mood, Modality, Attitude as part of Appraisal theory.

Abstract

This study examines Mood, Modality, and Attitude as a part of Appraisal theory in the Editorial News of the Sydney Morning Herald Interpersonal Meta function Analysis. Three methods were used, including (1) Indicative (Declarative and Interrogative) mood, (2) Modalization (Indicative Type), Probability (may be) and Usuality (“sometimes”), and (3) Attitude subsystem as part of Appraisal theory resources with three clauses, including Affect, Judgment, and Appreciation. The study aims to investigate the highest Interpersonal Meta function in terms of Mood, Modality, and Attitude in Editorial Discourse in Business-Related Issues. A sample of ten editorial discourses in business-related issues from The Sydney Morning Herald was used to examine Mood, Modality, and Attitude as part of Appraisal theory. The adopted framework in this research is interpersonal Meta function consisting of Mood, Modality, and Attitude as part of Appraisal theory. The results showed that more interrogative clauses were used, specifically 108 of 183 (59.02%) than declarative 75 of 183 (40.98%). Additionally, there were more probability positive clauses 61 of 73 (83.56%) than negative 7 of 73 (9.59%) and usuality 5 of 73 (6.85%). Similarly, appreciation clauses were used more frequently, specifically 19 of 46 (41.30%) than Judgment 14 of 46 (30.43%) and Affect 13 of 46 (28.26%). The limitation for this research is that it examined only 10 business-related editorials, which means it may not be too comprehensive. However, the information in this research can be used for educational development in Interpersonal Meta function Analysis of Editorial Discourse in Business-Related Issues Using English Systemic Linguistics. The author recommends that the future research should add more business-related editorial cases to incorporate Interpersonal Meta function, which consists of Mood, Modality, and Appraisal system as a whole by adding graduation, engagement in order to be more complete, not only Attitude as a part of Appraisal theory.